Learning the notes on your fretboard takes time and patience. But with consistency and hard work you can get it done. There is not a set path to achieving this, everyone approaches the guitar differently when it comes to learning. One way to tackle the fretboard is to start small. Learn all your natural notes on each string. Once you have that done, begin to learn your octave shapes . For instance pick the note C and locate all the octaves of C.
The fretboard can be broken down to five regions , a common way of visualizing the fretboard is through octave shapes that resemble chord shapes. C A G E D . This system is known as the Caged system.
Review this diagram for further clarity